ORAL CANDIDOSIS IN A GROUP OF HIV POSITIVE NIGERIANS
AGBELUSI G.A** , SOFOLA O.O**, UTI O .G*
**Department of Preventive Dentistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria. *Department of Preventive Dentistry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria
Oral candidosis is one of the commonest oral manifestations of HIV infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral candidosis in relation to CD4 counts and use of antiretroviral drugs among Nigerian HIV infected patients. Design: A cross-sectional study in which an interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 244 consecutive HIV patients aged 16-65years. They were examined for oral lesions including Oral candidosis. The presumptive criteria as defined by ECC Clearing House were used for diagnosis of oral lesions.
Result: Forty-six (18.9%) patients presented with oral candidosis of various types. Pseudomembraneous candidosis was the commonest variant seen in 60.0% of those who presented with intra oral candidosis. Prevalence of oral candidosis was significantly associated with use of antiretroviral drugs (p<0.05), low CD4 counts (p=0.010) and time since diagnosis (p=0.005).
Conclusion: Prevalence of candidosis was found to indicate a worsening of HIV disease in the group of patients studied and use of antiretroviral drugs was associated with reduced prevalence. Oral candidosis could be a useful marker of patients with low CD4 count. In view of this, emphasis should be placed on the importance of systematic examination of the oral cavity in all medical examination of HIV infected patients.
Key words: HIV/AIDS, Nigerian, Oral candidosis, prevalence.
Correspondence: DR O. G. UTI
Department of Preventive Dentistry
Lagos University Teaching Hospital Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria