Article Index



  1. Folayan MO, Idehen E. Factors influencing the use of behavioural management techniques during child management by dentists. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2004; 28: 155-161
  2. Scherer MW and Nakamura NY. A fear schedule for children: a factor analytic comparison with manifest anxiety. Behav. Res. & Therapy 1968;6:173-182.
  3. Cuthbert ML and Melamed BG. A screening device: Children at risk for dental fear and management problems J. Dent. Child. 1982; 49:432-436.
  4. Klingman A, Melamed BG, Cuthbert ML and Hormecz DA. Effects of participant modeling on information acquisition and skill utilization. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 1984; 52:414-422.
  5. Klingberg G, Berggen U and Noren JG. Dental fear in an urban Sweden child population: prevalence and concomitant factors. Community Dental Health, 1994; 11(4):208-214.
  6. Alvesalo I, Murtomaa H, Honkanen A, Karjalainen M and Tay K-M. The Dental fear survey schedule: a study of Finnish children. Int. Paediatr. Dent. 1993;3:193-198.
  7. Milgrom P, Jie Z, Yang Z and Tay KM. Cross cultural validity of a parent?s version of the Dental fear survey schedule for children in Chinese. Behav. Res. Ther. 1994;32:131-135.
  8. Milgrom P, Mancl L, King B, et al. Origins of childhood dental fear. Behav. Res. Ther 1995;33:313-319.
  9. Johnson R and Baldwin DC. Maternal anxiety and child behaviour. Journal of Dentistry for Children 1969; 36: 87-92
  10. Koenigsberg SR and Johnson R. Child behaviour during sequential dental visits. Journal of Dentistry for Children 1975; 42: 197-220
  11. Klingberg G. Reliability and validity of the Swedish version of the Dental Subscale of the Children?s Fear Survey Schedule, CFSS-DS. Acta Odontol Scand. 1994; 52: 255-256
  12. Carson P and Freeman R. Assessing child dental anxiety: the validity of clinical observations: Int. J. Paed. Dent 1997;7:171-176
  13. Folayan MO and Otuyemi OD. Reliability and validity of a Short Form of the Dental Subscale of the Child fear Survey Schedule used in a Nigerian children population. Nigerian Journal of Medicine 2002;11:161-163
  14. Folayan MO, Idehen EE and Ufomata D. The effect of sociodemographic factors on dental anxiety in children seen in a suburban Nigerian Hospital. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2003;13:20-26
  15. Folayan MO. Prevalence and effect of psychological management of dental anxiety in children treated at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife. A dissertation submitted to the West African College of Surgeons. October 2000.
  16. ten Berge M, Hoostraten J, Veerkamp JSJ, Prins PJM. The dental Subscale of the Children?s Fear Survey Schedule: a factor analytical study in the Netherlands. Community Dent. Oral Epidermiol. 1998;26:340-343.
  17. Klingberg G and Hwang CP. Children?s dental fear picture test (CDFP): A projective test for the assessment of child dental fear. J. Dent. Child 1994;61:89-98.
  18. Venham LL, Gaulin-Kramer E, Munster E, Bengston-Audia D and Cohan J. Interval rating scales for children?s dental anxiety and uncooperative behaviour. Pediatr Dent. 1980; 2: 195-202
  19. Frankl SN, Shiere FR and Fogels HR. Should the parent remain with the child in the dental operatory? J. Dent. Child 1962; 29:150-163.
  20. Melamed BG, Weinstein D, Hawes R and Katin-Borland M. Reduction of fear-related dental management problems with use of filmed modeling. J. Am. Dent. Asoc. 1975;90 : 822-826.
  21. Greenbaum PE, Lumley MA, Turner C and Melamed BG. Dentist?s eassuring touch: effect on children?s behaviour. Paediatric Dentistry. 1993; 15: 150-163
  22. Aartman IHA, van Everdingen T, Hoogstraten J and Schuurs AHB. Appraisal of behavioral measurement techniques for assessing dental anxiety and fear in children; a review. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 1996; 18: 153-171
  23. Wright GZ, Alpern GD and Leake JL. A cross-validation of some variable affecting children?s cooperative behaviour. J. Canad. Dent. Assn. 1973;39:268-273
  24. Machen JB and Johnson R. Desensitisation, model learning and the dental behaviour of children. J. Dent Res. 1974; 53:83-87
  25. Aartman IHA, van Everdingen T, Hoogstraten J and Schuurs AHB. Self-report measurements of dental anxiety and fear in children: a critical assessment. J Dent Child 1998; July to August:252-258.
  26. Melamed BG, Yercheson R, Fleece TL, Hutcherson S and Hawes R. Effects of film modeling on the reduction of anxiety ? related behaviours in individuals varying in level of previous experiences in the stress. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 1978;46: 1357-1367.
  27. Klorman R, Ratner R, Arata CLG, King Jr, JB and Sueen OB. Predicting the child?s uncooperativeness in dental treatment from maternal trait, state and dental anxiety J. Dent. Child. 1978;45:62-67.
  28. Klorman R, Micheal R, Hilpert PL and Sveen OB. A further assessment of predictors of the child?s behaviour in dental treatment. J. Dent. Res. 1979; 58:2338-2343.
  29. Winer GA. A review and analysis of children?s fearful behaviour in dental setting, Child Develop 1982;53:1111-1133.
  30. Klingberg G. Dental fear and behaviour management problems in children. Swed. Dent. J. Supplement 1995; 103:1-78.
  31. Blount RL, David W, Powers SW and Robert MC. The influence of environmental factors and coping style on children?s coping and distress. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 1991;11:93-116.
  32. Tuutti H. Dental anxiety in children and adolescents (Thesis) Kuopio, Finland: Publications of the University of Kuopio: original reports, Community Health, 1986.
  33. Lavelle L. Stress and anxiety in dental treatment. In applied oral physiology. 2nd Ed. London, Boston, Sydney, Wright CO. 1938:121-127.
  34. Irwin M and Hauger RL. Development aspects of psychoneuroimmunology in child and adolescent psychiatry. A comprehensive textbook. In: M. Lewis (Ed). Williams and Wilkins 1991:51-62.
  35. Meyers DR, Kramer WS and Sullivan RE. A study of the heart action of the child dental patient. J. Dent. Child. 1972;39:99-106.
  36. Bastawi AE, Reid KH and West GA. Relative utility of different measures of stress induced by dental procedures. J. Dent. Res. 1979; 58:1484.
  37. Buchanan H and Niven N. Validation of a Facial Image Scale to assess child dental anxiety. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2002;12:47-52
  38. Neyzi O and Ertugrul T. Pediatric Istanbut. Noble Tip Kitabevi, 1990:1927.
  39. Behrman RE. Disorders of the adrenal glands. In: Nelson Textbook of Peadiatrics. 14th ed, London. Montreal. Tokyo. W.B. Saunders Co. 1992:1438.
  40. McCartan RE, Izme, PJ, Wallace AN, Duffy FA and Charskul S. Salivary cortisol levels and anxiety in recurrent apthous stomatitis. J. Dent. Res. 1988;67: Abs. No. 14.
  41. Shinkai S, Watanable S, Kurokawa Y and Toni J. Salivary cortisol for monitoring circadian rhythm in adrenal activity during shift-work. Int. Arch. Occup. Envrion Health 1983;64:499-502.
  42. Bell JR, Martino G, Meredith KE, Schwartz GT, Siani MM and Morrow FD. Vascular diseases risk factors, urinary free cortisol and health histories in older adults. Boil. Psychol. 1993;35:37-49.
  43. Bellak L and Bellak S. A manual for the children?s apperception test. 7th ed. New York: C.P.S 1982.
  44. Baldwin DC Jr. An investigation of psychological and behavioural responses to dental extraction of children. J. Dent. Res. 1966;45: 1637-1651.
  45. Eichenbaum IW and Dunn NA. Projective drawings by children under repeated dental stress. J Dent Child. 1971;38:164-174.
  46. Tuomi T, Niemi P, Karppinen S, Harju J, Miettilci T, Siltvenius ? Pura A-M and Ylonene M. Hammashoitopelon arriointi lasten piirustutsista. Soumen Hammaslaakarilehti 1990;37:1062-1071
  47. Nelson WM and Cholera SN. Projective-cognitive assessment of thoughts and feelings and their relationship to adaptive behaviour in a dental situation. Adolescence.1986; 21: 855-862
  48. Klingberg G, Lofqvist LV and Hwang PC. Validity of the Children?s Dental Fear picture Test (CDFP). Eur. J. Oral Sci. 1995;103:55-60.
  49. Buchanan H and Niven N. Self-report treatment techniques used by dentists to treat dentally anxious children: a preliminary investigation. Int J Peadiatr Dent. 2003; 13: 9-12
  50. Wilson S, Flood T, Kramer N, McTigue J and Steinberg B. A study of facially expressed emotions as a function of age, exposure, time and sex in children. Pediatr Dent. 1990;12:28-32.
  51. Christophorou S, Lee GTR and Humphris GM. The reliability and validity of the modified child dental anxiety scale: a study of Greek Cypriot school children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2000;1:75-81
  52. Corah NL. Development of a dental anxiety scale. J Dent Res 1969;48:596.
  53. Dailey YM, Humphris GM and Lennon MA. The use of dental anxiety questionnaires: a survey of a group of UK dental practitioners. Br Dent J. 2001; 190:450-453
  54. Folayan MO and Idehen EE. The effectiveness of psychometric schedules in measuring dental fear treatment outcome in children. (in review)
  55. Folayan MO, Idehen EE and Ojo OO. The modulating effect of culture on the expression of dental anxiety in children: a literature review. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry (in Press).